The Paris Agreement is a historic international commitment to combating climate change signed by 195 countries in 2015. The agreement aims to limit the global temperature rise to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, while also pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
The overarching goal of the Paris Agreement is to strengthen the ability of countries to deal with the impacts of climate change, especially the most vulnerable ones. The agreement also aims to achieve a balance between mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to the impacts of climate change.
Mitigation refers to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, primarily carbon dioxide, from human activities such as burning fossil fuels, deforestation, and agriculture. The Paris Agreement calls for all countries to contribute to this effort and to update their mitigation pledges every five years, with the long-term goal of achieving net-zero emissions by the second half of the century.
Adaptation refers to the actions taken to build resilience and reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change, such as sea-level rise, increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, and disruptions to food and water supplies. The Paris Agreement recognizes the urgent need for adaptation and calls for increased support to developing countries to help them cope with the impacts of climate change.
The Paris Agreement also recognizes the importance of financing, technology transfer, and capacity building to support the transition to a low-carbon and climate-resilient future. Developed countries have committed to providing $100 billion per year in climate finance to support developing countries in their efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change.
In summary, the goal of the Paris Agreement is to limit global temperature rise to well below 2 degrees Celsius and pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius while also strengthening the ability of countries to deal with the impacts of climate change, achieving a balance between greenhouse gas mitigation and adaptation, and providing support to developing countries to build resilience and reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change.